Pavlyuchenkova stuns Svitolina in Melbourne
The duo had met on three occasions prior to this, with Pavlyuchenkova winning the first two, while Svitolina won their most recent meeting at the Toray Pan Pacific Open in Japan in September last year.
Pavlyuchenkova and Svitolina held serve for the first four games in the first set before trading breaks, which left them level at 3-3.
They continued to hold serve really well, but that was until the 24th seed broke Svitolina in the 12th game to clinch the first set.
Heading into the second set, the pair broke each other right off the bat before Pavlyuchenkova took a 3-1 lead after breaking her opponent in the fourth game.
Knowing that she was in serious trouble, Svitolina fought back and broke Pavlyuchenkova twice en route to winning the second set and keeping her hopes of advancing to the fourth round alive.
With a third and deciding set needed, Pavlyuchenkova claimed an early 2-0 lead after breaking Svitolina in the second game.
But, even though the world number 13 broke back, she was broken once again in the sixth game and failed to recover after that.
Pavlyuchenkova will either face eighth seed Svetlana Kuznetsova or Jelena Jankovic in the fourth round.
Meanwhile, Coco Vandeweghe also booked her spot in the fourth round after seeing off Eugenie Bouchard 6-4, 3-6, 7-5.
Vandeweghe will either go up against world number one Angelique Kerber or Kristyna Pliskova in the fourth round.